Sunday, January 22, 2012

Ban on Political Parties by the King in 1961 A.D

King Mahendra formed a government under the chairmanship of Subarna Shumsher Rana on December 7,1957. On November 17, 1958 A.D the king promulgated the constitution known as the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1958. The general election was held in the same year. The Nepali Congress Party obtained 74 seats out of the 109 seats. Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Nepal. The Nepali Congress led a single party government. However, very ambitious king Mahendra deposed the B.P. Koirala government on 1960 A.D., imprisoned B.P. Koirala and other leaders and banned the political parties and their activities. The king dissolved the parliament using article 55 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1958. This undemocratic act of King Mahendra on December 16, 1960 is regarded as the 'Black Day' in the history of Nepal.

The names of the ministers fo the cabinet formed on May 27, 2059 A.D who were dismissed by King Mahendra are given below:

  1. B.P. Koirala (Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala)
  2. Subarna SJB Ran
  3. Ganesh Maan Singh
  4. Surya Prasad Upadhaya
  5. Ram Narayan Mishra
  6. Kashi Nath Gautam
  7. Parasu Narayan Chaudhary
  8. Shiva Raj Pant
  9. Prem Raj Angdembe
  10. Surya Nath Das Yadav
  11. Lalit Chanda 
  12. Dwarika Devi Thankurani
  13. Min Bahadur Gurung
  14. Jaman Singh Gurung
  15. Yogendra Man Sherchan
  16. Newa Bahadur Malla
  17. Dr. Tulsi Giri
  18. Shiva Prasad Shah
  19. Dewan Singh Rai 
  20. Hora Prasad Joshi, and 
  21. Tribeni Prasad Pradhan
King Mahendra dismissed the popularly elected government on December 16, 1960 and the leaders who opposed the king's undemocratic act were tortured and detained.

                                                                                                         to be continue..................

Saturday, January 21, 2012

Socia-Economic and Political Achievements Between 1951-1961 A.D ( Contd....)

Administrative and Political Sector

The first democratic decade witnessed political instability due to frequent changes in governments. Even, the elected government of the Nepali Congress under the leadership of B.P. Koirala lasted for seventeen months. Despite frequent obstacles to forming and having stable governments, some of the major reforms in the field of political and administrative sectors were as follows:

  1. Multi-party democratic system was practiced.
  2. People got freedom to form political parties.
  3. Nepal became the member of the UNO, and the Universal Postal Union (UPU).
  4. First democratic constitution was framed in 2015 B.S.
  5. Formation of the Election Commission and the first general election started in 2015 B.S./1958 A.D.
  6. First people's elected government was formed.
  7. Nepal's diplomatic relations flourished.

Friday, January 20, 2012

Socia-Economic and Political Achievements Between 1951-1961 A.D ( Contd....)

Social Sector

  1. The Radio Nepal, began its broadcasting.
  2. First women's college was opened at Dillibazar in Kathmandu.
  3. Many feudal duties and obligations such as forced and unpaid labour, etc were removed.
  4. Dayabirsingh Kansakar established the Paropkar Anathalaya ( Orphanage).
  5. English education started for common people.
  6. The number of educational institutions reached 4,191 form 355 during the Rana period.
  7. The Supreme Court was established.
  8. A bill to end the Raja-Rajauta system was introduced.
  9. Foundation of the Tribhuwan University.
  10. Inauguration of Law College in Kathmandu.
                                                                                                          to be continue......................

Thursday, January 19, 2012

Socia-Economic and Political Achievements Between 1951-1961 A.D

The first democratic decade remained very productive in socio-economic and political development. We can discuss some of the achievements in the following headings:

Economic Sector

  1. 5-year plans for development started.
  2. System of annual budget was introduced for the first time in Nepal.
  3. Establishment of the Nepal Rastra Bank (Central Bank of Nepal) and the Agricultural Development Bank.
  4. Construction of the Tribhuwan Highway and several other roads started.
  5. Domestic and international aviations started.
  6. Telephone and telegram services started.
  7. Forests were nationalized.
  8. Diversification of tax was introduced and Birtaland was eliminated.
  9. Establishment of the RNAC currently the Nepal Airlines Corporation.
  10. Formation of the Nepal Industrial Development Corporation (NIDC).
                                                                                                           to be continue.....................

Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Political Situation and Condition in Nepal between 1951 A.D-1961 A.D ( Cont...)

 In the meantime, the Nepal Praja Parishad, the Nepal Communist Party, and other various organisations jointly formed a United People's Front ( Janatantrik Samyukta Morcha)  and demanded to form an all party government that would include all the democratic forces. On the other hand, Dr. K.I Singh revolted against the cabinet of Matrika Prasad Koirala. However, Dr. Singh failed in his mission. He fled to Tibet for refuge. At the same period, Bhim Dutta Pant who was leading of united front against the Ranarchy expressed his critical dissatisfaction with the government activities. He framed his political agenda on land ownership rights to the people, rights and interests of the people, and law and order as well as security of the people, and then started a revolutionary political movement. However, he was declared a terrorist, arrested and killed in Dadeldhura district in 1954 A.D.

After the suppression of the above-mentioned revolts, king Tribhuwan formed a five-member advisory government under his leadership. It was outright rejected by the democratic forces, and opposed by India. The government was dissolved in 1954 A.D. Again, a five-member ministerial cabinet under the leadership of Matrika Prasad Koirala was formed. Twelve secretaries supported the five-member cabinet in carrying out various administrative and political activities in different departments. The continued internal political misunderstanding, lack of support to the government, and unhealthy competition among political forces to run the government let to the dissolution of the Matrika Prasad Koirala-led government in 1955 A.D. King Tribhuwan died in 1955 A.D and Mahendra became the king. He immediately formed an advisory body and then started his direct rule. In 1956 A.D,  cabinet was formed under the leadership of Tanka Prasad Acharya, the President of Praja Parishad. It too got dissolved after six months in 1957 A.D. Again, a cabinet was formed under the leadership of Dr. K.I. Singh and that too could not serve the government long. It was dissolved in 1958 A.D.

Sunday, January 15, 2012

Political Situation and Condition in Nepal between 1951 A.D-1961 A.D

After the end of the 104-year-old Ranarchy through the joint effort of the democratic forces and King Tribhuwan, a new wave of politics float across Nepal. After the historic Delhi Agreement, King Tribhuwan returned to Kathmandu on 15 February 1951 A.D and declared democracy in Nepal. A democratic government was formed between the Nepali Congress and the Ranas. The ministerial cabinet approved the 'Interim Constitution' on March 30, 1951 A.D. The Constitution represented the spirit and right of the Nepalese people. The constitution also included the directive principles of state policy, fundamental rights and freedom of the citizens. The council of minister was responsible to the king.

The Ranas were attempting to restore their autocratic power. The ministers representing the Nepali Congress felt that the presence of the Ranas would not provide suitable political and administrative conditions to put into practice the spirit of the constitution. Therefore, on November 11, 1951 A.D, the ministers from the Nepali Congress Party resigned. It compelled Rana Prime Minister Mohan Shumsher and other ministers from the Rana side also to resign. After the resignation of Mohan Shumsher and his cabinet, king Tribhuwan invited and directed Nepali Congress President, Matrika Prasad Koirala, to form a 14-member ministerial cabinet or government.

                                                                                                                           to be Continue.............

Saturday, January 14, 2012

Causes of Failure of the Rana Rule

  1. Autocratic and dictatorial rule of the Ranas, misuse of the state's fund, resources and authority.
  2. Lack of support to the Rana rule from the people, and the conflict and conspiracy among the Ranas for power and privilege.
  3. Classification of Ranas in A,B and C classes; and opposition to the A-class Ranas by the C-class Ranas.
  4. Awareness in Nepal about the despotic rule of the Ranas, and the revolution against the Ranas by the unity of the people, democratic forces and King Tribhuwan.
  5. Impact of the independence of India the Second World War, and the support provided by India directly and indirectly.
  6. Dramatic escape of King Tribhuwan to Delhi, the Tripartite Agreement, declaration of democracy, and the formal end of the Rana rule.

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Main Five Clauses of the Delhi Agreement

  1. An elected Constituent Assembly shall draft the democratic constitution within two years.
  2. A 10-member interim government shall be constituted to run the administration until the new constitution is drafted. There shall be five members from the Ranas and the five from the Nepali congress in the interim government.
  3. King Tribhuwan shall remain as the legitimated king of Nepal.
  4. All the political prisoners shall be set free except those charged with criminal offences.
  5. The revolutionaries shall have to submit their arms and ammunition to the government and stop the revolution.
After the agreement the Nepali congress agreed to stop the revolution and with that, the armed revolution stopped in Nepal.

However, the Delhi Agreement was strongly protested by Dr. K.I. Singh and his supporters. They continued the struggle stating that the Ranas should be removed from all the high posts of the army and the civil service and they demanded that the agreement to end the Rana rule be done in Nepal itself under the mediation of the King rather than in foreign land under foreign pressure.

Friday, January 6, 2012

The Delhi Agreement and the End of Revolution-2007 B.S/1951 A.D

The Bairagania Convention of the Nepali Congress Party ( Aswin 10-12, 2007 B.S/ Sept. 27-29,1950 A.D) decided to carry out armed revolution against the autocratic Rana rule. The merging of the Nepal Democratic Congress led by Suvarna Shamsher Rana into the Nepali National Congress led by B.P. Koirala gave birth to a single party known as the Nepali Congress. The formation of the Nepali Congress gave a strong foundation for the revolution of 2007 B.S/1950 A.D. The Bairagania meeting helped to adopt two-prong strategies in order to accelerate the movement. i) Extremist struggle by forming the Liberation Army under Suvarna Shumsher, and ii) Peaceful protest under the leadership of B.P Koirala.

To help in the steps taken by the Nepali Congress, King Tribhuvan and his family fled to Delhi by an Indian helicopter on 21 Kartik,2007 B.S/ Nov. 7 1950 A.D. The revolution against the Rana regime became nationwide. The Liberation Army successfully captured the strategic places one after another. The independent and democratic Government of India openly supported the democratic forces. Mohan Shumsher, the Prime Minister, then declared Gyanendra Shah, the second grandson of King Tribhuvan, the King of Nepal. However, India and other friendly countries of Nepal did not recognize the new king and the activities of Mohan Shumsher. The revolution against the Rana Regime became nationwide. The Liberation Army successfully captured the strategic places one after another. At the same time, the Liberation Army occupied Biratnagar and the eastern hilly region, thus liberated the region from the hands of the Ranas. In the west too, in Palpa, the strategic centre for trade and administration, was brought under its control by the Liberation Army. The Liberation Army fought against the Rana soldiers and occupied following places: Illam, Diktel, Aathrai, Tehrathum, Okhaldunga, Parawanipur, the bridge of Sirsiya, Bhairahawa, Gorkha, Kailali, Kanchanpur, Doti, Biratnagar, Rangeli, Malangawa, Upper Danggadhi, Birgunj and Parsa. Similarly, the places seiged by the the Liberation Army without much resistance are Bhojpur, Khotang, Dhankuta, Mohottari, Mahinath, Thori, Chitwan, Taulihawa, Palpa, Pokhara, Gulmi, Syangja, Banglung, Koilabas, Dang-Deukhuri, Pyuthan, Dadeldhura, Surkhet, Dailekh, Baitadi and Shivaraj Dhajahani. In the Kathmandu valley too, slogans were raised against the Rana rule. Mohan Shumsher requested the government of India to mediate on the matter. The government of India helped to mediate for the peaceful settlement of the political issues of Nepal among King Tribhuvan, the Nepali Congress and Rana government. The Tripartite agreement of 29 Magh, 2007 BS/ Feb. 12, 1951 A.D is known as the Delhi agreement.

As per the Delhi agreement, there would be the formation of an interim government with five representatives from the Ranas and the other five from the Nepali Congress. After the conclusion of the agreement, King Tribhuwan returned to Nepal. On Falgun 7, 2007 BS/ 18 Feb. 1951 A.D. King Tribhuwan declared the end of the 104 years Rana rule and the establishment of democracy in Nepal.

The revolution against the Rana regime became nationwide. The Liberation Army successfully captured the strategic places one after another. The independent and democratic Government of India openly supported the democratic forces ,so, India mediated the issue between King Tribhuwan, the democratic forces and the Rana representatives. An agreement was signed on 29 Magh/ Feb. 12 and the movement was called off and a historic agreement was signed which was known as the Delhi Agreement. It was a tripartite agreement. After the agreement, the leaders of the Nepali Congress along with King Tribhuwan returned to Kathmandu from New Delhi on Falgun 4, 2007 / 15 Feb. 1951 A.D and declared the end of Rana regime and dawn of democracy on Feb 18, 1951 A.D.

Thursday, January 5, 2012

Major Achievements during the Rana Rule

The Rana rule was fully autocratic and family rule. All the high posts in civil and army services were reserved for the Ranas by birth. The posts above the colonel in the Army were fully reserved for the Ranas. Common people had no access to civil or army administration. The Ranas kept even the King away from the administration. Despite these facts, the Ranas made some reforms to sustain their family rule.

Administrative Acheivements
Offices to run daily administration, Ainkhana and Kaushal Adda to frame law, Muluki Khana to collect revenue and many other government offices (Addas) were established. Postal service started for governmental purpose. The Ranas continued the Pajani system, ( Annual appointment or dismissal of the officials) so as to make the officials loyal to the Ranas. Bir Shumser divided the country into 35 districts. The Ranas introduced 'Daudaha' system (Visitors System) to listen to the complaints of the common people and to check revenue leakage. The Daudaha team consisted of 9 members but the chief of the team would be a Rana. Jung Bahadur introduced the first Civil Code on January 7, 1853 A.D after he came back from Europe. The governing system was fully centralized and the order of the Shree Teen Maharaja was the law of the nation. Padma Shumsher introduced the first constitution of Nepal, Nepal Government constitutional Law, 2004 B.S / 1947 A.D.

Economic Achievements
Traditionally, agriculture was the backbone of Nepalese economy. Jung Bahadur Rana introduced diversification in agriculture and introduced tea plantation in Illam. Chandra Shumsher constructed Chandra Nahar ( Chandra Canal ) at Triyuga River in Saptari and Juddha  Shumsher cosntructed Juddha Nahar           ( Juddha Canal) at Manusmara River in Rautahat for the development of agriculture. Chandra Shumsher produced the first hydro electricity in Nepal at Pharping and Juddha Shumsher also established hydropower station at Sundarijal. Nepal had traditional cottage industries that produced hand made cloth, paper, utensils, weapons etc. Juddha Shumsher implemented Company Act and established industries, such as Biratnagar Jute Mills, Juddha Match Factory etc.That is why he is known as the father of Nepalese Industries. Nepal had trade surplus at that time. Nepal had trade link with Tibet, India and Europe. Nepalese raw materials were popular in Europe.

Social Achievements
Jung Bahadur tried to eradicated 'Sati System' ( immolation) but could not achieve success. Chandra Shumsher legally eliminated 'Sati System' in 1977 B.S or 1920 A.D. and 'Slavery System' in 1981 B.S / 1924 A.D. He declared slave trade illegal and punishable by law. Some of these ex-slaves were sent to British Army whereas others were settled at Bhikshakhori which is now called Amlekhgunj ( Freedom land). Widow marriage was made legal and the unmarried women above 35 years were given some right on parental property. Jung Bahadur introduced western education with the establishment of Durbar School. Bir Shumsher established Bir Hospital. Dev Shumsher established more than 100 schools and started the publication of Gorkhapatra ( newspaper). Chandra Shumsher established Tri-Chandra College. Padma Shumsher established schools for girls and encouraged girls' education. Despite these reformations, social evils such as untouchability, child marriage, bigamy, mismatch marriage etc. existed in the Nepalese societies.

Wednesday, January 4, 2012

The Causes of the Downfall of the Rana Rule

  1. Family Intrigues and conflicts: Several efforts were made during the rule of Jung Bahadur to overthrow him from power but they were all futile. After his death, Ranodip became the Prime Minister who was childless. The 1938 Parva and 1942 Parva(Massacre) gave a new turn in the history of the Rana rule. The sons of Dhir Shamsher assassinated Ranodip and the sons of Jung Bahadur and the role of succession went to the lineage of Dhir Shumsher. Chandra Shamser conspired and dismissed Dev Shumsher. Thus, there were always conflicts and conspiracies among the Ranas.
  2. Expulsion of 'C' class Ranas: Chandra Shumsher divided the Rana family into A,B and C classes and initiate fraction among the Ranas. Judddha Shumsher exiled 'C' class Ranas from the role of succession and exiled them. As a result, the exiled 'C' class Ranas went against the Rana rule, supported anti Rana movements and helped to bring the Rana rule to an end.
  3. Anti-Rana Movements: During the time of Jung Bahadur itself the protest against the autocratic rule began. Even though voices were raised against Rana regime in an unorganized way after the First World War Chandra Shumsher suppressed them. Chandra Shumsher also suppressed Makai Parva and Arya Samaj. Several anti Rana movements in the form of the charkha movement, Prachanda Gorkha, Mahvir School, library Parva, Praja Parishad, Jayatu Sanskritam gained momentum that mae people more aware of their rights and encouraged the people to fight against the Rana rule.
  4. Abdication of Throne by King Tribhuwan and Armed Revolution: Nepali Congress Party launched an armed revolution against the Rana rule in 2007 B.S.or 1950 A.D. Meanwhile, King Tribhuwan left the Narayanhiti Palace for India in Kartik 2007 B.S./ October 1950. As a result, the Anti-Rana Movement reached its climax. The Rana regime came to an end in Nepal after the proclamation of democracy on 7 falgul 2007/ February 19, 1950.

Tuesday, January 3, 2012

Causes for the rise of the Rana Rule

  1. Political Instability in Nepal: After the death of Prithvi Narayan Shah, his eldest son Pratap Singh Shah ascended the throne of Nepal. Unfortunatedly, he ruled only for 2 years and 9 months. After his death, three year old Rana Bahadur Shah became the king. The minors became the Kings and regents ruled the country. They were always in conflicts for power. In this way, political instability started in Nepal.
  2. Series of Assassination: Fetahjung Chautariya held the post of the Prime Minister after the assassination of Mathbharsingh Thapa. Queen Rajyalaxmi's favorite Gagansingh was very infuential in the court. Gagansingh was assassinated at night on the month of October in 1846 A.D. In the pretext of finding out his murderer, all courtiers gathered at the Kot of Hanuman Dhoka Palace where most of them were killed by Jung Bahadur and his supporters. That day is famous as Kot Parva in Nepalese history.
  3. Three Massacres ( Parvas ) : The Kot Parva took place first. After this Jung Bahadur became the Prime Minister as well as the commander in chief. There after the Bhandarkhal Prava ( Massacre) took place. Jung Bahadur exiled King Rajendra and Queen Rajyalaxmi to Kashi in India. After the Alau Prava, Jung Bahadur blamed King Rajendra for getting involved in conspiracy against the throne and put him under house arrest. Surendra was declared as the King. Jung Bahadur ruled the nation as a very powerful ruler thereafter.
  4. Marital Relationship with the Royal Family: Jung Bahadur married the sister of Fateh Jung Shah. He arranged the marriage of King Surendra with his younger brother Kirshna Bahadur's daughter. His sons Jagatjung and Jitjung got married to Surendra's daughters. Later on, two of his daughters were married to Prince Trailokya. Such relationship heightened the power and social prestige of the Ranas.
  5. The Royal Seal of 24 Shrawan 1913 ( August 9, 1856 A.D): Jung Bahadur reached the supreme status after King Surendra conferred him the title of Shree Teen Maharaj of Kaski and Lamjung in 1856 A.D. It resulted in the foundation of the Rana rule.

Monday, January 2, 2012


Ranarchy or Rana regime in Nepal started from the year 1846 to 1953 A.D. Jung Bahadur Rana played a great role in establishing the Rana rule in Nepal. His father, Bal Narasingh Kunwar was the body gaurd of King Rana Bahadur Shah. After the assassination of King Rana Bahadur, Bhimsen Thapa was the supreme powerful person in Nepal who was a very close relative of Bal Narasingh Kunwar. Thus, Jung Bahadur had close relation with the Royal Palace of Nepal. After the downfall of Bhimsen Thapa, the life of Jung  Bahadur became very miserable. He was a power monger and could do anything to gain power. He, even, assassinated his own maternal uncle, Mathbar Singh Thapa to win the trust of the queen and achieve power. There were minor kings and worst conspiracy in the Nepalese Royal Palace after the death of Pratap Singh Shah. Jung Bahadur utilized the situations wisely and founded Ranarchy.

Sunday, January 1, 2012

Ujjir Singh Thapa

He is another great warrior during Anglo-Nepal War. Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa's father, General Amarsingh Thapa, was the governor of Palpa. Ujjir Singh Thapa, the son of Nayan Singh Thapa and grandson of Amarsingh Thapa, became the Governor of Palpa after the death of Amarsingh Thapa. His duty was to defend Palpa. On the other side, Major General Wood was the British commander of this sector. About 4000 soldiers from the British troops were advancing to Palpa via Butwal. The British troops were confronted on a jungle route by Nepalese troops led by Ujjir Singh Thapa. The British army was badly defeated and forced to adopt a defensive policy. Nepalese troops drove the invading forces. Ujjir Singh Thapa's contribution to defend the sovereignty of Nepal remains immortal in the history of Nepal.