Thursday, January 5, 2012

Major Achievements during the Rana Rule

The Rana rule was fully autocratic and family rule. All the high posts in civil and army services were reserved for the Ranas by birth. The posts above the colonel in the Army were fully reserved for the Ranas. Common people had no access to civil or army administration. The Ranas kept even the King away from the administration. Despite these facts, the Ranas made some reforms to sustain their family rule.

Administrative Acheivements
Offices to run daily administration, Ainkhana and Kaushal Adda to frame law, Muluki Khana to collect revenue and many other government offices (Addas) were established. Postal service started for governmental purpose. The Ranas continued the Pajani system, ( Annual appointment or dismissal of the officials) so as to make the officials loyal to the Ranas. Bir Shumser divided the country into 35 districts. The Ranas introduced 'Daudaha' system (Visitors System) to listen to the complaints of the common people and to check revenue leakage. The Daudaha team consisted of 9 members but the chief of the team would be a Rana. Jung Bahadur introduced the first Civil Code on January 7, 1853 A.D after he came back from Europe. The governing system was fully centralized and the order of the Shree Teen Maharaja was the law of the nation. Padma Shumsher introduced the first constitution of Nepal, Nepal Government constitutional Law, 2004 B.S / 1947 A.D.

Economic Achievements
Traditionally, agriculture was the backbone of Nepalese economy. Jung Bahadur Rana introduced diversification in agriculture and introduced tea plantation in Illam. Chandra Shumsher constructed Chandra Nahar ( Chandra Canal ) at Triyuga River in Saptari and Juddha  Shumsher cosntructed Juddha Nahar           ( Juddha Canal) at Manusmara River in Rautahat for the development of agriculture. Chandra Shumsher produced the first hydro electricity in Nepal at Pharping and Juddha Shumsher also established hydropower station at Sundarijal. Nepal had traditional cottage industries that produced hand made cloth, paper, utensils, weapons etc. Juddha Shumsher implemented Company Act and established industries, such as Biratnagar Jute Mills, Juddha Match Factory etc.That is why he is known as the father of Nepalese Industries. Nepal had trade surplus at that time. Nepal had trade link with Tibet, India and Europe. Nepalese raw materials were popular in Europe.

Social Achievements
Jung Bahadur tried to eradicated 'Sati System' ( immolation) but could not achieve success. Chandra Shumsher legally eliminated 'Sati System' in 1977 B.S or 1920 A.D. and 'Slavery System' in 1981 B.S / 1924 A.D. He declared slave trade illegal and punishable by law. Some of these ex-slaves were sent to British Army whereas others were settled at Bhikshakhori which is now called Amlekhgunj ( Freedom land). Widow marriage was made legal and the unmarried women above 35 years were given some right on parental property. Jung Bahadur introduced western education with the establishment of Durbar School. Bir Shumsher established Bir Hospital. Dev Shumsher established more than 100 schools and started the publication of Gorkhapatra ( newspaper). Chandra Shumsher established Tri-Chandra College. Padma Shumsher established schools for girls and encouraged girls' education. Despite these reformations, social evils such as untouchability, child marriage, bigamy, mismatch marriage etc. existed in the Nepalese societies.

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